Saturday, July 25, 2015

Why a Buddhist Monk Doesn't Need an App to Meditate and Why You Do


by Dragos Bratasanu, The Huffington Post, July 17, 2015

A few years ago I traveled to Nepal to hike in the Himalayas, learn a bit more about myself and about the world from the Buddhist spiritual teachers.

For over seven years I have went back and forth across the bridge between science and spirituality. I have studied both, trying to understand why we try to separate them, why we need to follow one path or the other. I never could quite understand why a scientist cannot spend time in meditation or pray and why a person on the spiritual path can't actually think?
"Why a scientist cannot spend time in meditation
and why a spiritual person can't think." -- Dr Dragos

As the night embraced the highest peaks in the world, I walked through the gates of a beautiful Buddhist monastery. Pale yellow lights shimmered from the classrooms where students were still learning their most sacred ancient texts. Only the crackled sound of me turning the prayer wheels a couple of times, my footsteps in the garden and the bark of a stray dog in the distance created rhythm through the stillness of the night. Suddenly I felt somebody pulling my jacket and as I turned around, a small Buddhist kid with a big smile and sparkling happy eyes asked me laughing: "Do you have candy?"
Four words you need to make your dreams come true:
"Do you have candy?"

As it brings me great joy to share what I have, I gave him all my chocolate bars that I bought to help me resist the long hikes in the mountains. He ate all the chocolates really fast and I soon realized that "do you have candy" were the only English words he knew. He took my hand and walked me to the abbey of the monastery without saying another word.
The abbey was a wonderful man in his fifties now, with a most obvious trait: he was always laughing and smiling. When he was just 5 years old he ran away from Tibet to escape the Chinese oppression. Leaving his family behind, he fled across the mountains and took refuge in a Buddhist monastery in Nepal. He became a monk. In spite of all his hardships, he was now intensely happy.
How do you do it? I asked him. How do you stay so happy?
He begun his answer with a delicious laughter: "You know, in the western world you have everything you need to have a happy life. You have access to an abundance of information online, you have freedom, you have bookstores to learn anything you want, you can afford to buy anything you need. You even have apps for meditations!
I don't know what those are because I just sit down and meditate."
"What in the world is an app for meditation? I just sit down and do it." -- Buddhist monk
"You know what the problem really is? You fill your head with so much information but you never put it into practice. You never take action. You never do it. You study meditation, you learn techniques, you take courses, you read books, you go to classes but you never do it on the long run. And it's driving you crazy. It's that simple."
"Stop thinking and start doing!" -- Dr. Robert Richards, Co-Founder Singularity University
It's never the extraordinary people who do the extraordinary. It's the ordinary people like you and me who decide to stand up and take the journey. Because they complete the journey, ordinary people become extraordinary. What do you need to do today that you know you have to do and don't do it? Is it to go to the gym and exercise? It is to eat healthy? Is it to find the courage to tell your manager that he's wrong? Is it to take bold leadership of your life and stand up for who you really are?
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Thursday, July 16, 2015

Dharmarajika – a Buddhist monastery in Bangladesh, feeds fasting Muslims over Ramadan


AFP, July 7, 2015

DHAKA, Bangladesh -- A Buddhist monastery in Bangladesh is serving food to hundreds of poor Muslims during Ramadan, in a rare example of social harmony between the religions in the South Asian nation.
Dharmarajika, in the capital Dhaka, has become a hit on social media since it started distributing daily food packs for Muslims who break their fast during Iftar.
“Buddhism taught us that serving humanity is the ultimate religion. We are feeding poor Muslims who cannot afford to buy proper meals to break their fast,” Suddhananda Mahathero, the head monk of the monastery, told AFP.
When AFP visited on Monday evening, more than 300 Muslims were waiting at the gate of the monastery in Dhaka’s Basabo neighbourhood to receive some Iftar delicacies.
“I can eat some good food served with love and care,” said 70-year-old Amena Khatun, who added that she had walked several kilometres to get there.As a young monk distributed tickets to hungry Muslims, police were on hand to ensure the process remained orderly.
“This is such a wonderful example of religious harmony: showing respect and affection to the fasting neighbours without thinking of the difference of religions,” said policeman Asad Uzzaman.
Muslims make up around 90 per cent of Bangladesh’s 160 million population, with a tiny community of Buddhists residing mostly in the country’s southeastern districts bordering Myanmar.
In September 2012, tens of thousands of Muslims vandalised and torched nearly a dozen Buddhist temples in the south of the country following allegations that a Buddhist man had desecrated the Holy Quran.
Many Muslims took to social media to thank the Dharmarajika monastery for their food distribution, posting photos on Facebook of the yellow-clad monks handing out supplies. Others praised the monks on Twitter.
“I really appreciate the initiative and thank them,” Nur Hossain, a banker, told AFP.
The monastery was established in 1949 and is home to more than 700 orphans who study at a free school it runs.

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First annual Wisdom and Mindfulness retreats for westerners in Myanmar


by Alan Clements, The Buddhist Channel, July 14, 2015

Yangon, Myanmar -- Myanmar’s renowned Mahasi Meditation Center will launch a first-ever Western yogi meditation training for lay-teachers, first-time and experienced meditators.

First annual Wisdom and Mindfulness retreats for westerners in Myanmar, January 3-17, 2016 and January 24-February 7, 2016
Mahasi Sasana Yeiktha-Yangon (MSY), in partnership with the Buddha Sasana Foundation-USA/Canada (BSF), is hosting two rare meditation retreats (January 3-17, 2016 and January 24-February 7) specifically for Westerners interested in training in the techniques and foundations of insight meditation at the Center that launched the global mass lay meditation movement.
For nearly seventy years the Center has maintained a continuous 24-hour schedule of meditation for as many as 500 yogis at a time. The life-transforming training and practice
has impacted the lives of millions of meditators both in Myanmar and worldwide who have practiced in the tradition of the late Mahasi Sayadaw.
The techniques have been adapted to a variety of settings in the West - medical, educational,  correctional,  psychotherapeutic, business, and personal growth and spiritual development, in addition to the integrated approach to Buddhist philosophy and enlightenment. In South and Southeast Asia, the Mahasi method of insight meditation has influenced the face of Buddhist practice regionally.
Since 1962, the Mahasi Center has been closed to the world (other than in rare circumstances for a handful of practitioners). With Myanmar’s recent democratic opening,
the Center is poised for the first time to accept foreigner lay meditation teachers and passionate practitioners interested in training in the systematic mindfulness techniques of
Buddhist insight meditation, that is currently sweeping the world. (TIME: The Mindfulness Revolution).
Rooted in the long monastic tradition of an integrated ethical, scholarly and meditation based approach to pedagogy and outcomes, MSY has embarked on an unprecedented undertaking: a long-term training center for Western lay teachers taught in the medium of the English language. The 2016 Retreats mark the first annual meditation events and the
start of a new era in Buddhist training and practice.
The first yearly Mahasi Commemorative Gathering will follow the launch of the two Special Retreats on February 7 from one to five pm. The event commemorates the life and work of
the late Mahasi Sayadaw with lectures and commentaries offered on the extraordinary life and impact of the Mahasi’s systematization of insight meditation practice.
The retreats are open to all yogis by application on the The Wisdom of Mindfulness website but space is limited to 50 yogis in total. The retreats offer practical insights into the heart of Buddhist insight meditation and the emancipatory teachings of the Buddha.
The Retreats will be guided by the Center's abbot, Sayadaw U Jatila and the meditation teachers at Mahasi Sasana Yeiktha. Cultural and retreat assistance will be provided by Mr.
Alan Clements (former monk at the Center). Dr. Ingrid Jordt (former nun at the Center) and Dr. Jeannine Davies (long-time practitioner in the Mahasi tradition). Participating yogis may
come to the Retreat Assistants (kappiyas) with any questions regarding cultural translation of the monastic environment, help explaining protocol, interview style, technique questions,
and other general help.
If you go:
First Annual
INSIGHT MEDITATION FOR WESTERNERS IN MYANMAR
MAHASI SASANA YEIKTHA (MSY) MEDITATION CENTRE, YANGON

Retreat 1: Sunday January 3-17, 2016 (25 spaces)
This retreat, reserved for beginning and experienced meditators, will be taught in the Theravada Buddhist tradition using the Satipatthana Vipassana mindfulness method of insight meditation as instructed by the late Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw. The teachings emphasize developing sustained mindfulness throughout the day. (i.e., awareness of mental and physical phenomena as they arise moment to moment, in all activities, when sitting, walking, standing, bending, bathing, eating, lying down to rest, waking up etc.)
Retreat 2: Sunday January 24 – Feb 7, 2016 (25 spaces)
Reserved for lay meditation teachers and guides who would like to receive comprehensive training in the systematic Mahasi pedagogy. This retreat offers a special opportunity for teachers in the West to deepen their practice and to gain a more systematic knowledge of insight meditation. Guidance will be offered in the pedagogical foundations and skillful means required to guide practice and decipher the meditator’s report of vipassana experience in order to facilitate their role as a noble friend and guide/mentor.
First International Mahasi Commemorative Gathering: Feb 7th 1:00- 5:00 pm.
The Gathering to be held at the Mahasi Sasana Yeiktha Yangon, commemorates the life and works of the late Ven Mahasi Sayadaw and the history of the Mahasi teachings in Burma and throughout the world.
Further details and online application at:
http://www.thewisdomofmindfulness.org
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Alan Clements is author, dharma guide and a former Buddhist monk residing in Burma.
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Sunday, July 12, 2015

Buddhism and the World Crisis


by Prof Dr Damien Keown, The Buddhist Channel, May 29, 2015

In his keynote address at the opening of the United Nations Day of Vesak 2015, Prof Dr Damien Keown presents his view on how global crises can be turned into opportunities in the context of the ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) region

Bangkok, Thailand
-- While reflecting on the word ‘crisis’ I was reminded of a remark made by US President John F. Kennedy in a speech he gave in Indianapolis in 1959. The President said ‘The Chinese use two brush strokes to write the word “crisis.” One brush stroke stands for danger; the other for opportunity. In a crisis, be aware of the danger - but recognize the opportunity.’ I don’t know if the President’s understanding of Chinese was accurate, but I would like to take those words as the inspiration for my comments.

Certainly, there is a world crisis, and this presents itself in many shapes and forms. While the world has faced many crises in the past, the threat seems greater today due to modern developments such as globalization, advanced technology, mass migration, and the accelerated speed of transport and communications.

The pace of change has never been faster, allowing less time to pause in the face of the challenges that arise on every side, and less time to develop wise solutions.

In the face of these challenges there is a pervasive feeling, both among individual citizens and their political leaders, of being caught off-balance and wrongfooted by events; of being swept along by a tsunami of powerful forces which are beyond the power even of governments and world leaders to control. In this context, there is a greater need than ever for Buddhist teachings to be heard, and not just heard but implemented with commitment and decisiveness.

The panels in this conference will explore the role of Buddhism in the current world crisis under four different headings:

1.    Buddhist Response to Social Conflict
2.    Buddhist Response to Environmental Degradation
3.    Buddhism and the ASEAN Community
4.    Buddhist Response to Educational Crisis

These are interrelated themes, but let's start with the third, Buddhism and the ASEAN Community. I begin with ASEAN for two reasons. First, because 2015 marks the year in which the ASEAN Community comes into being; and second, because questions like social conflict, the environment and education will increasingly demand regional as opposed to national or local solutions.
ASEAN
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations was founded in Bangkok with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration on 8 August 1967. The five founding nations were Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. These were subsequently joined by Brunei, Cambodia, Lao, Myanmar and Vietnam, bringing the total to ten, and with the planned inclusion of East Timor the total will be eleven. The ASEAN Charter, which came into force on 15 December 2008, gave a legal and institutional framework for the creation of the ASEAN Community.

AIMS AND PURPOSES

The motto of ASEAN is ‘One Vision, One Identity, One Community,’ and the aims and purposes of ASEAN, as stated in its founding declaration, are as follows:
  1. To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations;

  2. To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter;

  3. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields;

  4. To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities in the educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres;

  5. To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilisation of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of their peoples;

  6. To promote Southeast Asian studies; and

  7. To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves.
In these seven items , the key words that stand out are: partnership, peace, prosperity, respect, collaboration, assistance, and cooperation. To what extent are these seven aims and purposes in harmony with Buddhist values? Like us, the Buddha lived at a time of change and instability: in his day, smaller states were being incorporated into larger political units, not voluntarily - as in the case of ASEAN - but as a result of the aggressive policies of their expansionist neighbours. 

As an alternative to this pattern of conquest and annexation, the Buddha commended an alternative political model based on collaboration and peaceful co-existence through the implementation of what he called ‘the seven conditions of welfare’ (sattā aparihāniyā dhammā) (D.ii.73ff).

THE SEVEN CONDITIONS OF WELFARE

  1. There are regular and frequent assemblies. This implies a democratic system in which the people or their representatives meet regularly for discussion on all matters.
  2. The assemblies meet in harmony, rise in harmony, and carry on their business in harmony.  Here there is an emphasis on united action in establishing an agreed manifesto, an agenda for action, and the implementation of democratically agreed policies. It also implies that communities will help each other in times of need.
  3. They enact nothing not already established, abrogate nothing that has already been enacted, and proceed in accordance with their ancient institutions. Perhaps this sounds overly conservative and suggests the Buddha was opposed to change. I think instead it was intended to safeguard the identity of the community and to establish the principle that resolutions should only be approved when they are in harmony with the community’s constitution and values.  In simple terms it suggests that everyone should respect the law.
  4. They honour, respect, revere, and salute the elders among them and consider them worth listening to. This involves recognition of the contribution made by statesmen and political leaders. It can also be seen as a call to respect and participate in the democratic process.
  5. They do not take away by force or abduct others’ wives and daughters and detain them. Here we see the Buddha’s strong disapproval of violence towards women and an implicit call for gender equality. While directed specifically at women, by extension it includes all vulnerable members of society and would prohibit exploitative practices like slavery, human trafficking, and child labour.
  6. They honour, respect, revere, and salute religious shrines at home and abroad, not withdrawing the proper support given before. This is a call for respect for religion and its symbols and material culture. It includes the sacred buildings of all religions such as temples, mosques, churches and shrines, along with their respective communities.
  7. Proper provision is made for the safety of arahants so that those from far away may enter the realm and live in peace along with those already present. Linked to the previous condition, this can be interpreted as a call for tolerance and religious freedom throughout the community. In addition, it suggests that restrictions on free movement should be removed so that those who wish to live in peace and bring benefits to the community are welcomed.

I make no claim that these two lists of seven items are identical, much less that the Buddha laid the foundations for the ASEAN constitution. I suggest only that the two lists share a common direction of travel.

In essence, what I think we see the Buddha calling for is a transparent democratic system built around consensus and based on a constitution enshrining humanitarian values, protection of the vulnerable, and freedom of religion. I think we can say there is no great incompatibility between the two lists, and it seems the political constitution and economic infrastructure provided by ASEAN can further the aims of allowing communities to co-exist in peace and prosperity in the modern world, an ideal to which Buddhists can happily subscribe.

ASEAN COMMUNITY

To forge the member states into a functioning community was the aim of the ASEAN Vision 2020, adopted in 2006. Here, the ASEAN leaders agreed on a shared vision of ASEAN as ‘a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies.’ The ASEAN Community is made up of three pillars:

1.    ASEAN Political-Security Community
2.    ASEAN Economic Community and
3.    ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

While nations in which Buddhism is influential will, like other member states, have an interest in the first two of these pillars, the contribution of Buddhist teachings and values will be especially important in the third. The aims of the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community, in which matters such as religious belief and traditions will play an important role, include achieving ‘enduring solidarity and unity among the peoples and Member States of ASEAN. It seeks to forge a common identity and build a caring and sharing society which is inclusive and where the well-being, livelihood, and welfare of the peoples are enhanced.’1

The various dimensions of ASEAN mentioned so far connect in various ways with the topics to be discussed at this conference. Buddhism has no objection to economic prosperity and the expansion of trade, provided, of course, that prosperity does not lead to rampant consumerism, and economic development takes place in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner.

Here we have a link to the second conference theme, namely concern for environmental degradation. Regional peace and stability, and respect for justice and law, are also admirable objectives, and connect to our first conference theme, which addresses the problem of social conflict. ASEAN’s commitment to renunciation of the use of force and a commitment to the peaceful settlement of disputes is of key importance here.

The fourth conference theme, the Buddhist response to the educational crisis, is picked up by references - in the fourth and sixth of the seven ASEAN principles - to the provision of assistance in training and research, and also to the promotion of Southeast Asian studies. This last item provides a platform for expanding the study of Buddhism at various levels of the curriculum, a point I will return to shortly.

While Buddhist values overlap to a large degree with those of ASEAN, on a practical level it will be the task of the representatives of the Buddhist member states to be vigilant in ensuring that the formulation and implementation of specific policies reflects the values of their home constituencies. Buddhist groups and organizations will need to ensure that their views on social, economic and political issues are expressed at the appropriate levels within the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION


Having said something about the aims and principles of ASEAN, we turn individually to the three remaining conference themes. Of these, the environmental crisis is perhaps the most serious. It is the most serious because of its global nature, and its capacity to threaten the wellbeing of the planet in a fundamental way. Apart from harm to the environment itself, environmental degradation has a knock-on effect in other areas: it affects health and economic development, and potentially also gives rise to conflict as resources become scarcer.

Importantly, the effects of environmental degradation are felt most keenly by the poor. To turn this challenge into an opportunity will require considerable initiative, thought and planning.
The ASEAN Declaration on Environmental Sustainability states :

ASEAN shall work towards achieving sustainable development as well as promoting clean and green environment by protecting the natural resource base for economic and social development including the sustainable management and conservation of soil, water, mineral, energy, biodiversity, forest, coastal and marine resources as well as the improvement in water and air quality for the ASEAN region. ASEAN will actively participate in global efforts towards addressing global environmental challenges, including climate change and the ozone layer protection, as well as developing and adapting environmentally-sound technology for development needs and environmental sustainability.

Developments in this respect are already under way. A programme run by the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB) in conjunction with Germany was launched in Jakarta on 7 April 2015. The project, titled ‘Protection of Biological Diversity in the ASEAN Member States in Cooperation with the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity,’ aims to ‘protect the biological diversity, promote the sustainable management of natural ecosystems, and improve the livelihoods of local population in the ASEAN region.’

Earlier last month, the Secretary General of ASEAN, H.E. Le Luong Minh, speaking in Hanoi, accepted that ‘ASEAN, as elsewhere in the world, despite abundant human and natural resources, does face a big challenge in keeping a delicate balance between environmental sustainability and economic development.’ 2

In his remarks, the Secretary General said there was ‘broad agreement that with regard to sustainable development, ASEAN's Post-2015 Vision should continue to promote inclusive, sustained and equitable economic growth and sustainable development, consistent with the UN Post- 2015 development agenda,’ while ‘ensuring a proper balance between economic development and environmental protection.’

Other interesting work has been done to explore ways in which specific economies can thrive in ASEAN while preserving their traditional ecological values. An example of this includes papers from a conference at Assumption University in 2013. One author, in his contribution titled ‘Buddhist Economics and Ecology: A Lesson for the Future of the ASEAN Community’  contrasts ‘mainstream economics, which is an economics of greed, with Buddhist economics whose goal is not to maximize utility but to promote a healthy life for the individual and wellness, peace and tranquillity for the society.’3

In the Buddha’s time there was no environmental crisis of the kind we face today. He was nevertheless well aware that nature can be a powerful ally or a dangerous enemy, and that the relationship between human beings and the natural world was complex and needed careful management.

The inhabitants of the region where he lived were very much at the mercy of the environment, and the early sources speak of natural disasters like flooding or drought leading to starvation, depopulation (A.I,160), poverty and crime (Ja.II,367; VI,487).4  The Buddha realized that the survival of forests and the wilderness was important to those who, like himself, left home to pursue the religious life.

Time and again he encouraged his monks and nuns to spend as much time as they could away from human habitation in the jungle (A.III,87). With respect to animals, the Buddhist values of non-violence and compassion are clearly expressed in the Buddha’s opposition to animal sacrifice. Various Buddhist teachings can be drawn on to promote environmental values and ecological awareness. Influential in defining ethical attitudes towards the natural world are the four Brahma-vihāras, or sublime states of mind, namely universal love (metta), compassion (karuṇā), sympathetic joy (muditā) and equanimity (upekkhā).

These attitudes foster feelings that lead to the protection of the natural world and ensure its well-being. While the environmental problems we face today are on a vastly larger scale, we can find in the Buddha’s teachings principles that can help guide our thinking.

SOCIAL CONFLICT

The topic of social conflict is a subject that brings us face to face with a number of difficult questions. It is an unfortunate fact that religious discrimination, intimidation, harassment, and violence toward minority religious and ethnic groups are currently on the rise, even in countries where Buddhism is well established.

Contemporary events have shown that the simplistic view that Buddhism is exclusively a religion of peace, and that only other religions promote violence is no longer sustainable. Buddhism like any religion can become entangled with nationalism and caught up in ethnic conflict.

Of course, this is clearly contrary to Buddhist teachings on violence, which are well known and often repeated. The Dhammapada (v.129), invoking the ‘Golden Rule,’ counsels against violence, and the First Precept prohibits causing intentional harm to any living creature. The Buddha explained how conflict often arises from greed, hatred and delusion, and taught virtues such as kindness, compassion, non-violence, mindfulness, gentleness, contentment, generosity and wisdom that promote harmonious co-existence, and criticized vices like arrogance, pride, covetousness, egoism and greed, which fuel animosity and conflict. Greed gives rise to attachment to pleasures, material possessions, territory, and economic and political power.

Attachment to dogmatic views and inflexible fundamentalist ideologies can lead to persecutions and bloody crusades. In the last century millions of deaths can be attributed to such attitudes. Claims such as “This alone is true, all else is false” (idam eva saccaṃ moghamaññam) (M.ii.170) are characteristic of attitudes that divide society.

Hatred and prejudice becomes entrenched, often for generations, and are difficult to dislodge. The delusion that one’s self, or one’s community, is uniquely privileged and must be protected at all costs reinforces egocentric and nationalist perspectives that see other communities as the enemy and a threat. The Buddha specifically warned against this kind of attitude, counselling his followers not to react angrily if the Buddha, Dhamma, or Sangha were disparaged by others (D.i.3).

The great king Asoka was no stranger to conflict, and was responsible for suffering and death on a large scale, as he himself admits. Repenting of these campaigns of conquest he later sought to implement values of toleration, and in his 12th Rock Edict spoke about the importance of religious toleration and his desire that ‘all should be well-learned in the good doctrines of other religions.’ He states that he ‘honours both ascetics and the householders of all religions’ and desires that they flourish. Key to this, he suggests, is restraint in speech, which means:

… not praising one's own religion, or condemning the religion of others without good cause. And if there is cause for criticism, it should be done in a mild way. But it is better to honour other religions for this reason. By so doing, one's own religion benefits, and so do other religions, while doing otherwise harms one's own religion and the religions of others. 
Not resorting to divisive speech is also important in avoiding and defusing conflict, and one who refrains from it is said to be: ‘one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of friendships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord.’ 5

Although delivered many centuries ago, this wise advice seems particularly timely on the threshold of closer integration among the ASEAN nations and their diverse faiths.
The ASEAN Institute for Peace and Reconciliation (AIPR) was established in 2011 under the auspices of the ASEAN Political-Security Community and held its first Governing Council Meeting in Jakarta in December 2013. Since then it has held two symposia in 2014, the first in Manila and the second in Bali. It will have a valuable and difficult role to play in mediation and defusing tensions which will inevitably arise in a religiously and ethnically diverse community of some 600 million people.

Relations between the two largest ASEAN religions, Islam and Buddhism, will play a key role in the integration of the community. According to one scholar:

The coming formation of the ASEAN community in 2015 highlights the urgent need for religions of Southeast Asia to move from co-existence to dialogue. When the 10 countries of ASEAN are integrated economically, Buddhists will make up about 40% and Muslims 42%. Hence the formation of an economically dynamic, politically plural and peaceful ASEAN community will depend on the future of Buddhism-Islam relations.6

Apart from intolerance of other religions, conflict can also arise from other sources.
Economic inequalities in the distribution of resources can lead to crime and social unrest, and a wise government will seek to avoid revolution and revolt by ensuring that material support is provided for the poorest in society.

The Cakkavatti-Sīhanāda Sutta records how by failing to do this, the kingdom of one ruler fell into ruin. For those members of the laity with greater resources, the Buddha gave useful advice on how to generate and spend their wealth (e.g. S.iv.331-7).

In the Sigālovāda Sutta he recommends that a quarter be used for one’s personal needs and comfort, a half on one’s business, and the remaining quarter saved in case of hardship (D.iii.188). The Sigālovāda Sutta also gives advice on social relationships, and other sources offer guidance on what sort of trades and professions should be engaged in and which not. Buddhism thus has a wide range of strategies to draw on - including mindfulness and meditation--to help avoid social conflict and to defuse it once arisen.

EDUCATIONAL CRISIS7

Turning now to the final conference theme of the educational crisis, Buddhism is an intellectually dynamic tradition that holds learning in great esteem. Scholarship, or ganthadhura, is recognized as an important and legitimate monastic career. Unfortunately, however, learning can also deteriorate into the mindless copying or chanting of texts without any real understanding. To avoid this requires a comprehensive system of education from primary to university level in which questioning, originality, analysis and critical reflection are encouraged.

A UNECOSOC ministerial declaration in 2011 spoke of ‘the inter-linkages between education and the advancement of all the other Millennium Development Goals. We also recognize that education plays a fundamental role in creating an inclusive society and reducing inequity and inequality, as well as for achieving sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth, poverty eradication and sustainable development.’

Following a two-year review of the curricula of member countries, ASEAN produced an ASEAN Curriculum Sourcebook as a tool for educators. The Sourcebook describes itself as :

… a resource that teachers throughout ASEAN can use to help learners explore their many connections to one another and to conceive of themselves both as individuals, and as engaged members in their community, country, their region, and the world. As they do so, they will understand the complex ways in which peoples and lands across ASEAN are connected, be able to exchange and appreciate diverse perspectives, and envision new ways in which they can work together to realize common goals and a brighter future.8

The Sourcebook explore five themes (Knowing ASEAN, Valuing Identity and Diversity, Connecting Global and Local, Promoting Equity and Justice, and Working Together for a Sustainable Future), through four Pathways (People, Places, Materials, and Ideas).
A third component is the ‘Essential Questions’ which ‘articulate the Pathways, connect the Themes with the learners’ own ideas and perspectives, and guide them in applying critical thinking and problem-solving skills as they engage with the material.’ These three elements form the basis of lesson plans which serve as free-standing teaching units.

While the Sourcebook is primarily intended for use in primary and secondary schools, it provides a blueprint that could be adapted for use in higher education as well. Institutions will need to review their existing curricula to make sure they meet the needs of incoming students who will graduate as citizens of the ASEAN community. 

The International Association of Buddhist Universities (IABU), with member universities in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Singapore and Indonesia, seems well placed to coordinate this work among Buddhist universities and to represent Buddhist views on education in the Socio-Cultural Community of ASEAN. The IABU’s vision, mission and goals broadly coincide with the educational objectives of ASEAN, UNESCO and UNECOSOC, and discussions have already taken place on a model ASEAN Buddhist Studies Curriculum. It remains to be seen whether and how this work will be carried forward by member institutions. 9

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, let me echo the quote from John F.Kennedy mentioned at the start with one from another famous politician, Winston Churchill. Churchill is reputed to have said, ‘Never waste a good crisis,’ and while he was referring to crises of a political nature I think his words also apply more broadly. Crisis brings the opportunity for change, and our conference will explore four areas of contemporary crisis and the opportunities they present.
While each of these can be tackled independently, I have suggested that they are interconnected. The positive outcome we look forward to in addressing these crises successfully is a well-educated population enjoying prosperity based on sustainable development and living in peaceful communities. I hope this is not too utopian an ideal, and that it is one which our discussions in this conference can help bring a little closer.

------
Damien Keown is Emeritus Professor of Buddhist Ethics, University of London Goldsmiths. The United Nations Day of Vesak (UNDV) is currently being held in Bangkok, Thailand from May 28-30, 2015. Presentation was edited for publication.

Notes:

[1] http://www.asean.org/communities/asean-socio-cultural-community.
[2] Communique in ASEAN Secretariat News, 1 April 2015. http://www.asean.org/news/item/sec-gen-minh-updates-world-parliamentarians-on-asean-s-sustainable-development-efforts?category_id=27.
[3] P.xii.
[4] S. Dhammika, Nature and the Environment in Early Buddhism, (Singapore: Buddha Dhamma Mandala Society, 2015) and available online from the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies. All of the information in the present paragraph comes from this useful source.

[5] Quoted in Peter Harvey, An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p.249.
[6] Professor Dr. Imitiyaz Yusuf , Graduate School of Philosophy and Religion, Assumption University. http://en.reingex.com/img/ASEAN-Religion.png
[7] This topic is addressed in depth by Dr Dion Peoples in a paper titled ‘Revised Role for Buddhism in ASEAN: Conquering the Educational Crisis’ to be presented in the ‘Buddhist Response to Educational Crisis’ panel of the conference, to which readers are referred for further information.
[8] ASEAN Curriculum Sourcebook, p.4.
[9] This was at the third conference of the Association of Theravada Buddhist Universities at Mahamakut Buddhist University, 16-18 May 2013 (Dion Peoples, ‘Revised Role for Buddhism in ASEAN: Conquering the Educational Crisis’).  
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Sunday, July 5, 2015

A Buddhist view of homosexuality


by (the late) Ven. Dr K Sri Dhammananda, Published on the Buddhist Channel, June 30, 2015

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia -- We can no longer pretend that this aspect of human behavior - homosexuality - is something shameful and if we ignore it long enough it will simply go away.
<< "There is nothing intrinsically wrong with sex. What is wrong is attachment and slavery to it, on believing that indulgence in sex can bring ultimate happiness.." -- Ven Dr K Sri Dhammananda (1919-2006)
To begin with, present day attitudes are largely influenced by the Tudor-Christian approach in the Bible which was blown out of proportion by the narrow mindedness of the Victorian era in 19th Century England.
In Asia, especially India and China, sex was never seen as something dirty only to be indulged in surreptitiously and only for the purposes of breeding. Stone sculptures on the Hindu temples of India amply testify to the fact that all kinds of sexual behavior (including masturbation) was an expression of KAMA, of sensual pleasure which could be indulged in within the limits of Dharma, which in this case meant virtue.
As human beings, we are equipped with bodies which crave for the pleasures of all kinds (not only sex) - for food, pleasant smells, sounds etc. If we deny these for being sinful, then we repress natural desires which are harmful. The being which is the victim of MAYA (ignorance) sees the body as real and craves to satisfy its longing for KAMA.
But as the being matures spiritually MAYA is replaced with VIDYA (knowledge) and PANNA (wisdom) . Therefore when the body is seen as an illusion, than the being naturally GROWS OUT of craving. Here, we see the superior being renounces sex through maturity just as a child stops playing with toys as he or she grows up.There is nothing intrinsically wrong with sex. What is wrong is attachment and slavery to it, on believing that indulgence in sex can bring ultimate happiness. This is the problem with the exploitation of sex by the mass entertainment industry today - extending the myth that sex can bring lasting happiness.
The third of the Five Precepts we recite in daily Buddhist practice is: undertake the training rule to refrain from sexual misconduct. First we note that there is no compulsion, no fear of punishment for infringement of any divine law, but when we recognize the danger of attachment to sex, we freely take the steps (training rule) to grow out of it, i.e. "I undertake".
Next we look at "sexual misconduct" - here we refer specifically to sexual misconduct, not all sexual behaviour. Sex is not prohibited to those who do not choose to be celibate. Undoubtedly, this rule only applies to those who are not monks or nuns. These latter have voluntarily taken it upon themselves to abstain from sex to better concentrate on their spiritual progress. By misconduct is meant behavior which harms the person who does the act or the other party.
This in a way means that if both parties are consenting adults, not under-aged, not “attached”- legally or otherwise to someone else, there is no harm done.
In Buddhism we do not consider any action "sinful" in the sense that we transgress a divine commandment. We act wrongly because of Ignorance and therefore we commit an Akusala Kamma (unskilful action) which delays or interferes with our spiritual progress. Because of our Ignorance about the real nature of things (in this case our body) we act in ways which are detrimental to us from a spiritual point of view.
Wisdom and Understanding will help us refrain from harmful actions, both mental and physical.
In this connection, Buddhism does not recognize that marriage is a divinely ordained institution which suddenly makes sex OK. Sex is a human activity which has nothing to do with heaven and hell. You will notice that sexual restraint is only ONE of the Five Precepts.
Killing is far more serious because you can hurt another being more viciously. Sex is caused by a craving just like craving for food, liquor, drugs, wealth, power, etc. Attachment to any of these constitutes Akusala Kamma. Buddhism discourages any of these forms of carving because it will tie us down more firmly to Samsara. Also indulgence in sex can lead to other evils.
One may see from this that Buddhism does not see Homosexuality as WRONG and HETROSEXUALITY as RIGHT. Both are sexual activity using the body, both are strong expressions of lust which increase desire for life and therefore trap us longer in Samsara. Whether two men or a couple fall in love, it arises out of the same human limitation that is, of not seeing the body as empty of any ultimate reality.
Buddhism does not condemn homosexuals in the same way as it does not condemn any wrong doing. We act through ignorance of the true nature of things, therefore we are only guilty of AKUSALA Kamma (unskilful action) . We have no right to condemn others.
Our duty is to help others see that they are acting out of ignorance, to show how real happiness can be gained. We have no right to condemn those who think or act differently from us especially when we ourselves are slaves of sensual pleasure in other forms. We know that when we point one finger at others, three fingers are pointing at us.
In summary, homosexuality like heterosexuality arises from Ignorance, and is certainly not "sinful" in a Christian sense. All forms of sex increase lust, craving, attachment to the body.
With wisdom we learn to grow out of these attachments. We do not condemn homosexuality as wrong and sinful, but we do not condone it either, simply because it, like other forms of sex, delays our deliverance from Samsara.

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Thursday, June 25, 2015

A most Profound and Wisely Ballanced Ontology:


cid:image002.jpg@01D0AEBA.5DEFC890
Buddha once explained existence as a chain of dependent emergence thus:
Some recluses and priests declare these excessively speculative views:
"Everything Exists"; which is the one extreme (Sarvastavadin Eternalism...).
Other recluses and priests declare a just as far fetched opposite extreme
view: "Everything does Not Exist" (Sunyatavadin Annihilationism...).
Avoiding both these extremes the Well-Gone-Beyond Buddha teaches
this Dhamma from the subtle, exquisite, and profound middle:
When this is present, that also exists.
When this emerges, that also arises.
When this is absent, that neither exists.
When this ceases, that also vanishes.
From ignorance arises mental construction.
From mental construction arises consciousness.
From consciousness arises naming-&-forming.
From name-&-form arises the six senses.
From the six senses arises contact.
From contact arises feeling.
From feeling arises craving.
From craving arises clinging.
From clinging arises becoming.
From becoming arises birth.
From birth arises ageing, decay, sickness and death.
From ageing, decay and death arises Suffering..
This is the origin of this entire mass of frustrating Pain...
When ignorance ceases, mental construction stops.
When mental construction ceases, consciousness stops.
When consciousness ceases, naming-&-forming stops.
When name-&-form ceases, the six senses stops.
When the six senses ceases, contact stops.
When contact ceases, feeling stops.
When feeling ceases, craving stops.
When craving ceases, clinging stops.
When clinging ceases, becoming stops.
When becoming ceases, birth stops.
When birth ceases, ageing, decay, and death stops... !
When ageing, decay and death ceases, then Suffering  stops!
This is the disappearance of this entire mass of frustrating Pain...
This - only this supremely stilled silence - is the deathless Nibbāna!


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Everything has a Cause: More on Co-Dependent Co-Arising (paticca-samuppāda):
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/IV/Caused_by_What.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Cohesive_Co-Origination.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Collapsible_Co-Cessation.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Causes_of_Emergence.htm

http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/wtb/n_r/paticca_samuppaada.htm
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Existence is dynamic thus:
 Neither a static substance out there, nor a mental illusion in here,
 But a chain of dependent states arising and ceasing momentarily...

 More on Buddhist Ontology: What exists and how does it exist?
 
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/What_Exists.htm
 http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Advanced_Right_View.htm
Everything has a Cause..
Have a nice and Noble day.
signature.pic
Friendship is the Greatest! Bhikkhu Samāhita _/\_ ]
http://What-Buddha-Said.net

Monday, June 22, 2015

Exhibition on Indian Buddhist Art opens in Singapore


By Alice Chia, CNA, 18 Jun 2015

Titled "Treasures from Asia's Oldest Museum: Buddhist Art from the Indian Museum, Kolkata", the two-month-long exhibition features dramatic sculptures and paintings tracing scenes from the life of Buddha.
SINGAPORE -- More than 80 pieces of rare Buddhist art from the Indian subcontinent are on display at the Asian Civilisations Museum in Singapore. The exhibition, which features artworks from Asia's oldest museum in Kolkata, chronicles the evolution of Buddhist art from the 2nd century BC.
Titled "Treasures from Asia's Oldest Museum: Buddhist Art from the Indian Museum, Kolkata", the exhibition was opened on Thursday (Jun 18) by Singapore's Minister for Culture, Community and Youth Lawrence Wong and India's Minister of State for Culture and Tourism (Independent Charge) Dr Mahesh Sharma.
On display are dramatic sculptures and paintings tracing scenes from the life of Buddha, and symbols used to represent Buddhist concepts. Highlights include a 1.2 metre tall sandstone standing Buddha dating to the 5th century; and a 10th century carving of Queen Maya giving birth to Buddha.
Experts say the 1.2-metre-tall statue of Buddha influenced images of the Buddha in other regions, such as China and Southeast Asia.
"There's a big Indian diaspora that lived in Singapore and also there is a large Buddhist community here, so we did feel that it was relevant to Singaporeans, and hope they would come and enjoy looking at Buddhist art from the Buddhist homeland," said Ms Theresa McCullough, the senior curator for South Asia at the museum. "And also the Indian Museum in Kolkata is the oldest museum in Asia, and it set the standard for the National Museum in Singapore and other museums that sprung up subsequently." The exhibition takes place in the 50th year of Singapore's independence, and celebrates the 50th year of diplomatic relations between India and Singapore. It is the result of a collaboration with the Kolkata museum and is sponsored by the Indian government.
However, an obelisk on display bears testimony to the fact that ties between the two countries go back much further than 50 years.
"This was erected in 1850, to commemorate the visit to Singapore by the Marquess Dalhousie, which is the British viceroy of India," said Mr Wong. "The occasion was significant and crucial in recognising Singapore's status as a port city, under British rule at that time through the government of India."
Both countries hope they will be able to inspire more people to learn about Buddhist art.
"We, in India, are working hard on this. To make it a part of the curriculums, to make our young generation visit our museums, the exhibitions, to learn the rich heritage and culture of not only our country but the world around," said Dr Sharma.
The exhibition runs until Aug 16.
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Thursday, June 11, 2015

Gently is


by Sylvia Bay, The Buddhist Channel, June 2, 2015



For one who seeks the meditative state,
Much work is needed to prepare the mind,
To break it out of bad habits,
To want, to own, to search and hunt.
Learn to have no expectations, no wants,
No going somewhere,
Or being someone.
No past, no future,
No mental constructs,
Let go of planning,
And rest in the breathing.

Maintaining focus,
Keep mind sharp and steady,
Know that there's watching,
Know arising, falling.
Know when it's leaning towards subtle straying.
Leash it gently,
Keep it in line.
Firmly but patiently,
Just watch roving mind.

A moment will come,
When the mind stops tugging.
And began to settle into a quiet abiding.
Note this moment:
Note the knowing.
It is the stillness of no one being.

The mind becomes soft.
The heart feels light.
A smile is formed.
Body delights.
A subtle vibration,
Perhaps gentle rocking.
Odd physical sensations,
Are just normal happenings.

Do not be attached
To anything that is seen.
Whatever that arises,
That surely must cease.

Each moment is conditioned,
Upon another before.
This is impermanence.
Just an eternal Law.

That which is ever changing,
Is innately unsatisfactory.
In essence there is nothing
Worth holding and grieving.

Wisdom is when
The mind let go
Of the belief in an I.
And hold not to things,
That it maintains are Mine.

Wisdom is when
It let go of views
That were once so dear,
Including that mind-made delusion
That is the Self.

When the mind is content,
And ask for nothing,
Being no one,
And going nowhere.
There lies the bliss
Of just being
Quietly knowing
Gently is.

Buddhist Philosophy Eric Fromm’s views


By Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge M.D., Lanka Daily News, May 30, 2015

Buddhism helps man to find an answer to the question of his existence, an answer which is essentially the same as that given in the Judeo-Christian tradition, and yet which does not contradict the rationality, realism, and independence which are modern man’s precious achievements. Paradoxically, Eastern religious thought turns out to be more congenial to Western rational thought than does Western religious thought itself’
– Erich Fromm
Colombo, Sri Lanka -- The social psychologist and humanistic philosopher, Eric Fromm was vastly influenced by Freud and Karl Heinrich Marx. He became a follower of Neoanalytic tradition. In later years, Fromm started reading Zen Buddhism in depth.  He saw Buddhism as a philosophical-anthropological system based on observation of facts and their rational explanation.
(Buddhism and the Mode of Having  vs. Being – Erick Fromm 1975). Fromm believed that Buddhism is a completely rational system which demands no intellectual sacrifice.
Fromm’s interest towards Buddhism was obvious. Among the Western scholars, Caroline A F Rhys Davids was one of the pioneers to conceptualize canonical Buddhist writings in terms of psychology. Professor William James was making some comparisons between the consciousness and thought process that was described in the Western Psychology and what the Buddha had taught two millenniums ago.  Many former members of the Freud’s Psychoanalytic society were reading Buddhist philosophy and making evaluations. By this time Carl Jung had highlighted the mind analysis in Buddhism. Therefore Fromm’s interest towards Buddhism was not an abrupt event.
In his 1950 work Psychoanalysis and Religion, Eric Fromm profoundly analyzed Buddhist Philosophy.  He made a distinction between the authoritarian and humanistic religions and interpreted Buddhism as an antiauthoritarian religion that provides for personal validation and growth.As Fromm viewed, in the Buddhist philosophy there is no surrender to a power transcending figure and as a virtue; obedience does not play a key role.  Buddhism is   centered around  man and his strength. Man must develop his power of reason in order to understand himself, his relationship to his fellow men and his position in the universe. Fromm further says that a humanistic religion like Buddhism is geared to achieve the greatest strength, not the greatest powerlessness; virtue is self-realization, not obedience.
Like Carl Rogers, Fromm believed man’s ability for self growth. He refused to believe the Freudian concept that explains man is geared by innate primary destructive forces of libido. Fromm realized that unlike in the Viennese Victorian society   sexual repression plays no major part in the Contemporary Society. Fromm once stated that in the modern society people mostly repress their true thoughts and feelings rather than the sexual urges. Buddhism and psychoanalysis
The psychoanalytical components in Buddhism have been emphasized by many scholars like Martin Wicramasinghe D. Lit, Laurence W. Christensen, etc. The Buddhist Jathaka stories from the Khuddaka Nikaya contain 550 stories and Rev Buddhaghosa, translated most of the Jathaka stories into Pali about 430 A.D.  In most of these Buddhist Jathaka stories a powerful psychoanalytical   fraction can be detected.
Eric Fromm saw a larger perimeter in psychoanalysis and did not limit it to neuroses. Fromm criticized Freud’s patriarchal attitude as limiting the development of psychoanalysis as a science (Maccoby 1994). Eric Fromm suggests that Zen Buddhism has a prolific influence on theory and technique of psychoanalysis.
“…[W]hat can be said with more certainty is that the knowledge of Zen, and a concern with it, can have a most fertile and clarifying influence on the theory and technique of psychoanalysis. Zen, different as it is in its method from psychoanalysis, can sharpen the focus, throw new light on the nature of insight, and heighten the sense of what it is to see, what it is to be creative, what it is to overcome the affective contaminations and false intellectualizations which are the necessary results of experience based on the subject-object split” (Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis-Eric Fromm
p. 140).
The psychoanalytical module in Buddhism is very much evident. Buddhism provides psychological methods of analyzing human experience and inquiring into the potential and hidden capacities of the human mind. According to Buddhism mind precedes its objects. They are mind-governed and mind-made. The verse 37 of the Dhammapada   explains the dynamics of human mind thus: The mind is capable of travelling vast distances – up or down, north or south, east or west – in any direction. It can travel to the past or the future.
Gerald Virtbauer of the University of Vienna makes comparisons between the Buddhism and the Western Psychology.
The first approach is to present and explore parts of Buddhist teachings as a psychology. As many teachers of different Buddhist traditions point out, Buddhism is not primarily a religion based on faith and worship, but a system, or an art to inquire into the human mind. (Buddhism as a Psychological System: Three Approaches-Gerald Virtbauer 2008)
Search for meaning
In 1959, Eric Fromm co authored an incomparable book titled Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis with D. T. Suzuki and Richard de Martino.  In this book Fromm postulates distinct relationship between the Western psychoanalyses and Zen Buddhism. Eric Fromm argued that the human being needs to find an answer to his existence and this urge to search for meaning differs human from other animals. In addition he highlights that   human has an inner dynamism that directed towards personal growth.  He viewed that living is a process that starts at birth and does not end at death. Fromm states that most of the people   die before they are fully born. The notion of fully born according to Fromm is becoming fully functional as a human being.
Eric Fromm in his book, Escape from Freedom asks series of questions that were originally based on Talmud.
1) If I am not for myself, who will be for me?
2) If I am for myself only, what am I?
3) If not now, when?
These types of questions were evident in the Buddhist Philosophy.  Once when the lord Buddha was delivering a sermon, a young girl showed up. Then the Buddha asked a series of questions from her.
1) Where do you come from?
She said I don’t know venerable sir, and then the Buddha asked
2) Where do you go?
She said I don’t know.
3) Do you know?
The girl replied – “Yes”
Finally the Buddha asked
4) Don’t you know?
She said ‘No’
It was an enigmatic type of answers, but the girl was referring to her previous existence when the Buddha asked where do you come from? She did not know from where she came to the present existence. When she was asked where do you go? She replied I don’t know, because she does not know   where she would go after her death. When the Buddha asked do you know? She said yes because she knew that she was a mortal, and she would certainly die one day. When she was asked don’t you know?  Her reply was no. Because,  she did not know when she would be dead.
The search for meaning has become the main theme of religion and philosophy.  The meaning of life constitutes a philosophical question concerning the purpose and significance of life or existence in general.
The Buddha explained that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire that suffering ceases when desire ceases.
Human suffering
The Buddhist Philosophy deeply explains the causes of human suffering and path for freedom. Therefore Buddhism is not based on pessimism. It is based on realistic principles. The mundane understanding of suffering is related to bearing of pain, inconvenience, and distress that connected with hopelessness. According to the Buddha the word suffering has a deep existential meaning. It is a universal explanation of the true human condition.
To explain suffering, the Buddha used the term ‘Dukkha’, which has a universal meaning. Many Western Psychologists misinterpreted the word ‘Dukkha’ (universal suffering), and they viewed it as an agonizing human condition. This was due to the mistranslation done by the French Philosopher Anatole France in the late Centaury. Anatole France translated the word ‘Dukkha’ into French as souffrance and then into English as suffering.  Ever since many Western scholars grasped the concept of ‘Dukkha’ incorrectly. Therefore many thought Dukkha symbolizes the dark side of human existence filled with pessimism and despair.
However Eric Fromm was able to grasp the deep philosophical notion of universal suffering or ‘Dukkha, and he saw human suffering in personal lives, in the society and in the civilization.
In 1960, Fromm wrote: “Psychoanalysis is a characteristic expression of Western man’s spiritual crisis, and an attempt to find a solution”(Fromm et al., 1960, p. 80). Although Freud stated that Psychoanalysis is a method of medical treatment for those who suffer from neurosis (Five Lectures delivered by 1909 by Dr. Sigmund Freud at the Clark University) Fromm did not want to limit psychoanalysis to the neurotic patients. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Fromm believed in experience rather than interpretation.
Fromm’s psychoanalytic technique was essentially different from Freud’s psychic archeology. Fromm attempted to create what he called a more ‘humanistic’ face-to-face encounter. He believed the analyst must understand the patient by empathy as well as intellect, with the heart as well as the head. (Maccoby 1994).
Freud assumed that hysterical patients suffer from reminiscences. Their symptoms are the remnants and the memory symbols of certain traumatic experiences. When Freud went into individual level, Fromm applied psychoanalytic theory to social and cultural problems.
Eric Fromm saw the human suffering in the individual level as well as within the society. He saw the collective suffering. Fromm was on the view that psychological problems often result when an individual feels isolated from society. Describing individual suffering Fromm wrote:
“The common suffering is the alienation from oneself, from one’s fellow man, and from nature; the awareness that life runs out of one’s hand like sand, and that one will die without having lived; that one lives in the midst of plenty and yet is joyless” (Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis- E. Fromm et al. pp. 85-86).
Fromm Further says that one of the worst forms of mental suffering is boredom, not knowing what to do with oneself and one’s life. Even if man had no monetary or any other reward, he would be eager to spend his energy in some meaningful way because he could not stand the boredom which inactivity produces.
Fromm saw extensive suffering in the society that was resulted from centuries old socio economic systems and loss of meaning. Fromm’s book The Sane Society looks in to the dilemmas caused by the industrialization. Many Psychologists believe that Fromm’s publication The Sane Society was a respond to Freud’s Civilization and its Discontents. In the Sane Society Fromm looked in to a new form of human suffering and man’s escape into over conformity and the danger of robotism in the modern industrial society.
In his book, Escape from Freedom, Fromm describes how freedom can be frightening and therefore, many people run from freedom. For average men freedom is not an emancipation it is a burden. Fromm further postulates that man is the only animal for whom his own existence is a problem which he has to solve.
Know thyself
Eric Fromm strongly believed that ‘Know thyself’ is one of the fundamental commands that aim at human strength and happiness. Fromm’s notion ‘Know thyself’ was stated by the Buddha over 2,600 years ago. In the story of  Bhaddawaggiya, Princes reveals the importance of knowing thyself.
The Bhaddawaggiya Princes where looking for a woman who stole their valuable possessions. When they met the Buddha the princes asked, “Venerable Sir, did you see a woman? The Buddha answered, “What is more important whether look for a woman or to look for thy self? (means know thy self). The princes replied that more important is to know thy self.
Knowing thyself or achieving self realization   is one of the virtues of Buddhism. The young apprentice, Angulimala was ill-advised by his teacher and he became an addictive killer.  He killed nearly 999, men and collected the fingers of his victims.  When he saw the Buddha he thought that he could have his next victim. Angulimala ordered the Buddha to stop. The Buddha replied, “ I have already stopped therefore you should stop too.” The Buddha meant that he does not harm anyone and he was able to stop the cycle of Sansara or the continuous flow of birth, life , death and reincarnation. This phrase created a cognitive revolution in Angulimala.   Angulimala had a self-realization that led to a dramatic transformation his personality. He renounced violence.
Human freedom
The idea of freedom was unique to Fromm. He assumed that freedom is the central characteristic of human nature.  According to Fromm often people escape from freedom. He described three ways in which people escape from freedom:
1. Authoritarianism (either submitting power to others becoming passive and compliant or becoming an authority by applying structure to others)
2.  Destructiveness.
3.  Automaton conformity.
In his 1968 book, The Revolution of Hope, Fromm writes that man has to protect himself not only against the danger of losing his life but also against the danger of losing his mind.
Michael Maccoby in his 1994 article, The Two Voices of Erich Fromm: the Prophetic and the Analytic points out that Fromm’s model of the healthy individual who transcends and transforms society is the ‘productive character,’ the individuated person who loves and creates. Unlike his other character types – receptive, hoarding, exploitative and marketing – The productive character lacks clinical or historical grounding. It is a questionable ideal. (Maccoby 1994).
Eric Fromm believed that human is capable of determining his freedom. He saw Zen Buddhism as a way from bondage to freedom. In his own words Fromm explains:
“Zen Buddhism is the art of seeing into the nature of one’s being; it is a way from bondage to freedom; it liberates our natural energies; … and it impels us to express our faculty for happiness and love (p. 115).
Eric Fromm introduced five basic needs and the fifth need he called -A Frame of Orientation – The need for a stable and consistent way of perceiving the world and understanding its events. The Buddha explained that the virtuous man perceives the world and its events in realistic manner. He achieves self realization the highest plane in the human intellectual structure.
The Ven. Dr. Walpola Rahula explains this condition more gracefully in his book, What the Buddha Taught.
He who has realized Truth, Nirvana, is the happiest being in the world. He is free from all ‘complexes’ and obsessions, the worries and troubles that torment others. His mental health is perfect. He does not repent the past, nor does he brood over the future.  He lives fully in the present. Therefore he appreciates and enjoys things in the purest sense without self-projections. He is joyful, exultant, enjoying the pure life, his faculties pleased, free from anxiety, serene and peaceful.
Eric Fromm saw humanistic religion such as Buddhism could help people achieve self-fulfillment and understanding.  Fromm concluded that the Buddhism could see man realistically and objectively, having nobody but the ‘awakened’ ones to guide him, and being able to he guided because each man has within himself the capacity to awake and be enlightened.
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Tuesday, June 9, 2015

Mindfulness has lost its Buddhist roots, and it may not be doing you good


by Miguel Farias and Catherine Wikholm, The Conversation, June 5, 2015

London, UK -- Mindfulness as a psychological aid is very much in fashion. Recent reports on the latest finding suggested that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is as effective as anti-depressants in preventing the relapse of recurrent depression.
While the authors of the paper interpreted their results in a slightly less positive light, stating that (contrary to their hypothesis) mindfulness was no more effective than medication, the meaning inferred by many in the media was that mindfulness was superior to medication.
Mindfulness is a technique extracted from Buddhism where one tries to notice present thoughts, feeling and sensations without judgement. The aim is to create a state of “bare awareness”. What was once a tool for spiritual exploration has been turned into a panacea for the modern age — a cure-all for common human problems, from stress, to anxiety, to depression. By taking this “natural pill” every day, we open ourselves up to the potential for myriad benefits and no ill-effects, unlike synthetic pills, such as anti-depressants, whose potential for negative side-effects we are all aware of.
We don’t know how it works
Mindfulness has been sold to us and we are buying it. After all, thousands of studies suggest that it produces various kinds of measurable psycho-biological effects. However, despite what is commonly propagated, the idea that science has unequivocally shown how meditation can change us is a myth. After examining the literature from the last 45 years on the science of meditation, we realised with astonishment that we are no closer to finding out how meditation works or who benefits the most or the least from it.
The few available meta-analyses report moderate evidence that meditation affects us in various ways, such as reducing anxiety and increasing positive emotions. However, it is less clear how powerful and long-lasting these changes are — does it work better
than physical relaxation for example? Or than a placebo? The evidence on this is contradictory and inconclusive.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is an eight-week group therapy programme blending cognitive education with mindfulness techniques. It was designed specifically as a treatment to help prevent individuals who have experienced recurrent depression from further relapse. As well as weekly group sessions, participants are encouraged to engage in daily mindfulness meditation at home throughout the course. This mindfulness therapy is growing in popularity, with recent calls for it to be more widely available on the NHS.
Yet we still can’t be sure what the active ingredient is. Is it the meditation itself that causes the positive effects, or is it more to do with learning to step back and become aware of our thoughts and feelings in a supportive group environment? And why does it only work for some?
Side effects
Mindfulness is presented as a technique that will have lots of positive effects – and only positive effects. It is easy to see why this myth is so widespread. After all, sitting in silence, focusing on your breathing or being aware of the flow of thoughts and feelings would seem like a fairly innocuous activity with little potential for harm.
But considering that many of us rarely sit alone with our thoughts, it isn’t hard to see how this might lead to difficult thoughts and emotions rising to the surface for some people – which we may, or may not, be equipped to deal with. Yet the potential for emotional and psychological disturbance is rarely talked about by mindfulness researchers, the media, or mentioned in training courses.
And here we come to an important point. Buddhist meditation was designed not to make us happier, but to radically change our sense of self and perception of the world. Given this, it is perhaps not surprising that some will experience negative effects such as dissociation, anxiety and depression. However, like the small print on medication, these “side-effects” in some individuals are not what the creators of this pill are concerned with promoting.
For some, penicillin is life saving; for others, it induces a harmful reaction. Just because your friend or family member responds to a pill a certain way, does not mean you will respond in the same way. The same is also true with mindfulness: for some, it may be very effective or it may not work at all, for others, there may be harmful effects.
Mindfulness has been separated from its roots, stripped of its ethical and spiritual connotations, and sold to us as a therapeutic tool. While this may not deny its power as a technique to change our state of consciousness and with implications for mental health, it arguably limits its “naturalness”, as well as its potential – at least as originally intended.
Many Buddhists are critical of the use of mindfulness for purposes which are very different from the radical shift in perception they aim for — the realisation of “emptiness” and liberation from all attachments. Instead, as Giles Coren recently claimed, this technique has been turned into a McMindfulness which only reinforces one’s egocentric drives.
The idea that each of us is unique is a cornerstone of individual-based therapy. But with mindfulness-based approaches there is little space for one’s individuality, in part because it’s a group practice, but also because there has been no serious attempt to address how individuals react differently to this technique.
So if you go into it – as with taking any other kind of pill – keep your eyes open. Don’t consume mindfulness blindly.

Quantum Theory Proves That Consciousness Moves to Another Universe After Death


By Anna LeMind, The Buddhist Channel, June 8, 2015

San Francisco, CA (USA) -- A book titled “Biocentrism: How Life and Consciousness Are the Keys to Understanding the Nature of the Universe“, published in the USA, has stirred up the Internet because of the notion that life does not end when the body dies and can last forever. The author of this publication, scientist Robert Lanza, has no doubts that this may be possible.
<< Beyond time and space
Lanza is an expert in regenerative medicine and scientific director at Advanced Cell Technology Company. While he is known for his extensive research on stem cells, he was also famous for several successful experiments on cloning endangered animal species.
But not so long ago, the scientist turned his attention to physics, quantum mechanics and astrophysics. This explosive mixture has given birth to the new theory of biocentrism, which the professor has been preaching ever since. The theory implies that death simply does not exist. It is an illusion which arises in the minds of people. It exists because people identify themselves with their body.
They believe that the body is going to perish, sooner or later, thinking that their consciousness will disappear too. In fact, consciousness exists outside of constraints of time and space. It is able to be anywhere: in the human body and outside of it. That fits well with the basic postulates of quantum mechanics, according to which a certain particle can be present anywhere and an event can happen in several, sometimes countless, ways. Lanza believes that multiple universes can exist simultaneously. These universes contain multiple ways for possible scenarios to occur. In one universe, the body can be dead. And in another it continues to exist, absorbing consciousness which migrated to this universe. This means that a dead person, while traveling through the ‘tunnel’, ends up in a similar world he or she once inhabited, but this time alive. And so on, infinitely.
Multiple worlds
This hope-instilling but extremely controversial theory by Lanza has many unwitting supporters – not just ‘mere mortals’ who want to live forever, but also some well-known scientists. These are physicists and astrophysicists who tend to agree with the existence of parallel worlds and who suggest the possibility of multiple universes, known as the Multiverse theory.
Science fiction writer H.G. Wells was the first to come up with this concept, which was proposed in his story “The Door in the Wall” in 1895. 62 years after it was published, the idea was developed by Hugh Everett in his graduate thesis at the Princeton University. It basically states that at any given moment the universe divides into countless similar instances. And the next moment, these “newborn” universes split in a similar way.
You may be present in some of these worlds – you may be reading this article in one universe or watching TV in another. The triggering factor for these multiplying worlds is our actions, explained Everett. When we make certain choices, one universe instantly splits into two different versions of outcomes. In the 1980s, Andrei Linde, scientist from the Lebedev Physical Institute in Russia developed the theory of multiple universes. He is now a professor at Stanford University. Linde explained: “Space consists of many inflating spheres, which give rise to similar spheres, and those, in turn, produce spheres in even greater numbers, and so on to infinity. In the universe, they are spaced apart.
They are not aware of each other’s existence. But they represent parts of the same physical universe.” The fact that our universe is not alone is supported by data received from the Planck space telescope. Using the data, scientists created the most accurate map of the microwave background, the so-called cosmic microwave background radiation, which has remained since the inception of our universe.
They also found that the universe has a lot of anomalies represented by black holes and extensive gaps. Theoretical physicist Laura Mersini-Houghton from the North Carolina University argues that the anomalies of the microwave background exist due to the fact that our universe is influenced by other universes existing nearby. And holes and gaps are a direct result of attacks from neighboring universes. Soul quanta So, there is abundance of places or other universes where our soul could migrate after death, according to the theory of neo-biocentrism.
But does the soul exist? consciousness parallel universeProfessor Stuart Hameroff from the University of Arizona has no doubts about the existence of eternal soul. Last year, he announced that he has found evidence that consciousness does not perish after death. According to Hameroff, the human brain is the perfect quantum computer, and the soul, or consciousness, is simply information stored at the quantum level.
It can be transferred, following the death of the body; quantum information carried by consciousness merges with our universe and exists infinitely. In his turn, Lanza proves that the soul migrates to another universe. That is the main difference his theory has from the similar ones. Sir Roger Penrose, a well-known British physicist and expert in mathematics from Oxford, supports this theory and claims to have found traces of contact with other universes. Together, the scientists are developing a quantum theory to explain the phenomenon of consciousness.
They believe that they have found carriers of consciousness, the elements that accumulate information during life and “drain” consciousness somewhere else after death. These elements are located inside protein-based microtubules (neuronal microtubules), which previously have been attributed a simple role of reinforcement and transport channeling inside a living cell. Based on their structure, microtubules are best suited to function as carriers of quantum properties inside the brain. That is mainly because they are able to retain quantum states for a long time, meaning they can function as elements of a quantum computer.
Source: http://www.learning-mind.com/quantum-theory-proves-that-consciousness-moves-to-another-universe-after-death/